The History of Print Media

Currently, in the times of digital media and Information technology, the importance of print media is same as years before. May be it is the convenience of reading something anytime you want that makes the hardcopies remain more popular. Even in our offices where most of the business and information exchange are carried out through internet, stuff like laser tone cartridge and bulk ink are still very important part of office supplies. It seems like nothing is ever going to take the place of print media. While the usage of printing and print media seems to have no end even in the future, one really gets curious about the history of this media. Let us go back in time and trace back man’s first successful print making endeavor.

Many historians trace the history back to Mesopotamian times of around 3000BC but there are hardly any evidences to prove it. However first actual record is known to be of block prints used around 200AD in China. Initially it was used to print on clothes. As the usage of paper became common around China and East Asia, the same technique was used on paper as well. Nearly two centuries later the Romans also used the same printing techniques on both papers and clothes. The earliest example of a complete printed compilation along with illustrations is The Tiananmen scrolls. It was printed in China in 868 AD. In Korea, the same block technique was further enhanced by using metal rather than wood.

Later during the 9th and 10th century same technique was used in clay, wood, metal, stone and even glass in the Middle East. The Arabs and Egyptians used the technique to print prayer books and amulets. With the Arab invasion of Europe and Central Asia, this technique also travelled along. Yet in Europe also, it was used to print religious banners and scrolls mostly n fabric.

As this technique was taking over the world, the Chinese invented yet another technique in the 1040AD. This was the movable object printing. The basic technique was still the block method but the components were actually movable. The very first example of book printed with this method is a Korean book, ‘Jijki’. It required a lot of effort in moving the tablets around.

During 1843, a new technique was introduced by an American inventor, Richard March Hole. In this technique the image or text to be printed is rolled around a cylinder which is than pressed or rolled over the substrates. With few improvements done along time, his remained a very popular printing technique around the world.

Later, the offset printing was invented during 1875. The technique was initially developed to print on tin but now has become the most common type of printing used for paper. Although it is good for large scale printing purposes, the increase in daily printing requirements lead to the development of most latest printing technique, the laser printing. It is quick and convenient and the equipment is not too heavy or bulky. This is the technique home and office printers are based on.

This article comes from ezine-articles edit released

How to spend Musically fans with out Surveys

The title is inclined as well irregular to you, greatest? Thats ever since acquiring Musically followers without any categories of analysis is normally irregular nowadays. You will discover a huge selection of sites that offer hacks to spend followers, but then most of them should be able to call on you to finish analysis from your name of human checks. Though this is not an attractive practice, it requires here at any of these conditions where many of these spamming bots are all roaming an estimated the net. In order that, you ought to have directly to cooperate an estimated simply by downloading a free of charge app directly to screen that all youre not just a robot! then we are able to provide you greatest linked to the greatest web page to spend hacking followers to secure a of your own body’s Musical. Ly webpages. Observing the newest facts about Musical. Ly here at 2017, gentle the kids here at 2nd grade are all using this structure. His / her parents may or might not be familiar with the age, but then it ought to be shown. This can be majority of ever since Musical. Ly is normally such an excellent app to spend quite a long time. A minor 14-years mature son called Jacob Sartorius gentle verified that all app could be applied to spend accelerating someones dreams simply by learning to be a star here at Musical. Ly. Yes, he might end up being the early client exactly who may turn into a famous pop star and at more than a few followers uploading videos here at Musically. That all is probably the more than a few tales an estimated populace acquiring wide-spread and at a large number of Musically followers at the page. Aside from that, other than maintaining fun, you could use this structure for being famous want celebrities. Take a get involved with, exactly who understands while you’re the following pop star want Justin Bieber exactly who regulation the pop earth. For that, youll want more than a few followers through the use of any kind of hack or cheat of Musically. You are unable to enjoy the same fame if that all hack serves for that factor. Fortunately, i have found such a minor hack that all serves correctly. Your own body’s a job is by using that all hack correctly, without any committing any kind of mistakes. Lets take notice how can you write it out. Hack to spend followers to spend Musically told me

Down under, we are going to talk about to you ways to get followers for that Musically factor using this hack. You would like to read through the sentences and don’t write any kind of argument ever since achieving this hack. Consistently, you may have directly to come back down under to place a bad comment stating It doesnt work that all would allow all of us straight down. In order that, lets make an effort to inform you only to gentle which will be the in simple terms means of avoiding bugs. In the first place linked to the specifics; 1st, you think about the a lot more than button. That is the apply to the page where we have uploaded the hack structure. Now there, you would like to provide two inputs; that you are your own body’s Musically username, only to then one is normally the amount of followers you desire. Dont end up being and so greedy, pick 10k followers 1st and see how it ways. If it ways cold, come back only to pick a single mil which will be my personal favorite volume you would like to pick. Dont write the same argument of setting up @ before username of which is already performed simply by more than a few populace. That you are brilliant if that all argument didnt happen to you. At this time, follow all the other hack only to get through it just like a boss. Download a free of charge app directly to screen that you are a minor human, only to youre performed. In simple terms take a look at your own body’s page following a a quarter-hour, only to youll see the updated group of followers on your Musically page. Consistently, the age will happen transferred to five minutes, but then getting yourself it may rise directly to one hour. Want you understood the things. Post your own body’s remarks under from your remarks only to lets get started referring to here at that all. I will minimize only if you got more than a few followers for that Musically page. Take a cold quite a long time.

France: leading the way in technical textiles

France alone accounts for 24% of Europe’s production of these textiles, which have specific properties that make them suited to very specific applications. Such products may be woven, knitted or nonwoven and are used in very many sectors including agriculture, healthcare, transport, individual protection, construction (Saint-Gobain Vetrotex is the world leader in fibreglass used to reinforce concrete), civil engineering, sport, industry, electronics and food production. They have many different properties, being highly resistant, fireproof, antimicrobial, anti-UV or antistatic.

France is home to more than 370 companies specialized in technical textiles. Their gross turnover totalled €5.88 billion in 2012 and companies specialized in nonwoven items export more than 67% of their production. After contention products, such as stockings and tights for people with poor circulation, and geotextiles to strengthen roads in areas where there is a risk of subsidence, manufacturers have developed ever more innovative textiles over the years. Fire brigade clothing can thus now indicate the surrounding temperature and determine the toxicity of the smoke released by the fire. The company Kermel, from Eastern France, produces meta-aramide fibres, which are particularly popular for the design of articles aimed notably at professions exposed to sources of violent heat.

Farmers can now acquire shading screens and films that can be used to control the ripening of crops. Texinov, an SME, has notably developed a textile that reflects the sun’s rays, in partnership with the National Institute for Agronomic Research (INRA). It increases the performance of vines and improves grape quality.

Industry is also making increasing use of textiles because of their lightness and specific properties, in particular their resistance which is often far higher than that of metals such as steel. Did you know that 11% of the average mass of a car is now made up of fibres? In France, NCV and Aérazur (a subsidiary of the French company Zodiac Aerospace) are specialized in producing airbag fabrics. The brakes used by Airbus and Boeing, like those employed in Formula One racing cars, are made up of disks and carbon pads, most of them manufactured by Messier-Bugatti or Valeo.

French-made technical textiles are also widely used in the sport and leisure sectors. They are used for example to produce NCV 3D sails and for ropes by Cousin Trestec and Béal, which are particularly popular amongst amateur and professional mountain-climbers. Many tennis champions also take advantage of the latest technological advances by using cords developed by the company Babolat.

Connected textiles also show considerable industrial promise and CityZen Sciences is already a player. This young, dynamic company attracted a lot of attention at the last CES (Consumer Electronics Show) in Las Vegas and produces “smart fabrics”. Its “D-shirt” is capable of providing physiological data on an athlete and should beavailable by the end of the year. China and the United States are the first two markets planned for the company’s development internationally.

It is in the healthcare sector that we are seeing a real revolution. The company Cardial has thus established a global reputation thanks to its artificial arteries woven from polyethylene terephathalate yarn. Floréane, a leader on its market, has for its part developed renowned expertise in the area of parietal and visceral surgery. In Northern France, Cousin Biotech manufactures surgical implants in small quantities, designed for back problems, the implantation of vascular prostheses and reinforcement of ligaments. The Gemtex laboratory is also of note, currently working on a luminous fabric that could be used to help treat certain cancers using photodynamic therapy.

France’s strengths in this sector largely draw on the quality of the high-level training provided by its higher education establishments. This is the case notably of ENSAIT, the National School of Textile Industries and Arts, which alone issues 60% of France’s engineering diplomas in the textiles field. Students can also study the trades in this sector at the HEI engineering school in Lille, ENSISA (South Alsace Engineering School) in Mulhouse, and at Lyon’s textile and chemistry institute. The ENSCI (National Industrial Design School) also offers high quality training with three aspects: industrial creation, textile design and continuous training.

The technical textiles industry and its many areas of application have considerable development prospects. French companies are set to remain at the leading edge of this emerging sector for some time to come.

This article comes from ambafrance-bd edit released

What is the meaning of print media?


Print media refers to paper publications circulated in the form of physical editions of books, magazines, journals and newsletters. Print media is given explicit freedom in the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights.

With so many different forms of media distribution, traitional print media is struggling to maintain readership. Due to the fact that publications lose so many readers every year, advertisers are beginning to pull money from print mediums, such as newspapers and magazines.

Instead, those funds are put into other mediums like television, radio, and other digital platforms. Journalists considering a career in this field should recognize that the Internet offers the same level of freedom of expression as print media. Publishing written work on the internet is gaining popularity because of the ease of creating a content and dispersing it.

However, print media has a great touch.

This article comes from reference edit released

Switch To Technical Textiles For Improved Product Design

Technical textiles in engineered products are a resource for new product development and product improvement that is just waiting to be embraced. James Lorbiecki argues that those willing to explore the possibilities may be pleasantly surprised at the outcome and view textiles in a whole new way.

Imagine a fighter pilot flying ‘just another sortie’ when things go horribly wrong. A split-second decision is made; one hard pull of the firing handle launches the pilot out of the dying aircraft, landing safely on the ground in as little as 3 seconds, attached to a billowing parachute. Martin-Baker Aircraft Company has been designing and manufacturing ejection seats since 1949 and to date over 7,373 lives have been saved worldwide. Textiles constitute nearly 19% of the entire weight of an ejection seat. Without technical textiles, not one of these lives would have been saved.

Technical textiles have been part of the aviation industry from the very beginning – starting out as the fabric covering the airframe, evolving into the reinforcements now vital to composite airframes, and other important roles such as ejection seat components. Most individuals who work with ejection seats rarely take notice of the sophistication of the textiles and the role they play in the seat’s performance.

Textiles in general maintain a low or diminished profile. This form of material is one of the earliest engineered products, having been around since the stone age. It was the development of textiles that provided the spark that triggered the Industrial Revolution. Each of us is in intimate contact with textile products every day of our lives from cradle to grave. This familiarity renders us almost blind to the multitude of functions that textiles provide. In industrial applications, textiles tend to be left out of the toolbox of problem-solving materials, often because they are not on a CAD system drop-down menu of materials.

Technical textiles is the term used to describe textiles that are constructed for their properties and function, rather than their appearance (although appearance can often be a factor). Textiles come in a multitude of knit, woven or fibrous forms including rope, cord, thread, netting, fabric, webbing, wadding and three-dimensional shapes. Textiles offer a high degree of functionality, weight reduction, and cost saving if applied and engineered properly. New textiles developments are coming fast and furious, offering the possibilities of replacing metal and plastic with stronger, lighter and often cheaper alternatives. Think of an industry and textiles will play some part in it. Engineers often unknowingly employ technical textiles in the form of drive belts, composite materials, filters, insulation, hydraulic hose and a myriad of other applications. The overt and intentional use of textile product is usually avoided mainly due to a lack of education and exposure to its benefits. Textiles are barely covered in the typical engineer’s education. However, for those willing to explore the potential there may be great reward.

Some of the high performance fibres now available are as much as ten times stronger than any steel of the same weight. Many can function in temperatures from -270ºC to 650ºC or higher. Some textiles can be used as a flexible insulation, replacing their rigid predecessors with a third of the original thickness and weight. Textiles often combine characteristics to provide design solutions unobtainable by rigid metals and plastics. For instance, the shrapnel-resistant shielding in jet aircraft engines is made from textile – an application where no other material would provide a practical engineered solution. Personal protection in the form of seatbelts, airbags, clothing, body armor, etc. is dominated by technical textiles as the material of choice.

Textiles can be engineered to be hydrophilic or hydrophobic, fire retardant, electrically conductive or insulative, visible or invisible to radar or infrared, physically expand when stretched (auxetic), energy absorptive or reflective, stiff or highly flexible – the possibilities are endless. Textiles are often thought of as being a flat product: this is far from the reality of modern textiles. Textile manufacturers can form three-dimensional shapes or multi-layered products through CNC production equipment. Assembly techniques such as sewing, bonding, and welding have also made technological advances well beyond what is normally imagined resulting in even more textile design possibilities.

When considering textiles for the first time in a product, it may be a daunting task – where do you begin? Firstly, open your eyes! Look around and see where textiles are used in our world. Consider your product and how textiles may benefit its design. If you have an inkling of an idea but do not know how to proceed, there is help at hand. Most technical textile manufacturers are more than eager to guide the product designer through the world of textiles – it is in their best interest. Companies such as Arville Textiles, AmSafe, and Baltex, as well as a host of others, have a wealth of experience and are willing to discuss and nurture your ideas. In the case of Martin-Baker, textile suppliers form an integral part of the engineering team; often they are involved in design development and product reviews. Books available from The Textile Institute and Woodhead Publishing can provide further information and resources into the world of technical textiles.

This article comes from industrial-technology edit released